DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2309-8147.7.1.2019.163000

Features of the lifestyle as a risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

M.Yu. Bykhovets, S.O. Rykov, L.V. Natrus

Abstract


progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods. The study included 76 patients with DM2, who were diagnosed with DR of varying severity according to the results of ophthalmological examination. The control group (n = 43) consisted of sex-, age-, body mass index-matched persons without diabetes. A questionnaire was developed for the study of LS, all persons were asked to answer its questions. Results. For the integral evaluation of LS scores in the comparison groups, it is advisable to analyze answers through the determination of indices. The most successful was the index of recommendation rationality as the “recommended — not recommended” ratio. 90 % of patients with DM2 adhere to a special diet, but the presence of errors in dietary nutrition does not correlate directly with the severity of the state and DR development. Additional exercises as well as intake of additional amount of water in the diet are habits that significantly differentiate patients with DM2 from their peers without diabetes. But the lack of additional physical activity and a small amount of fluid in daily use showed no correlation with deterioration in the condition of patients and increased complications in the form of DR. An analysis of food habits found that the insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables is directly related to the DM development and its complication in the form of DR progression. Conclusions. The study analyzes the LS indicators: diet, physical activity, water, fruit and vegetable intake. It is found that additional physical activity and the intake of 1.5–2 liters of water is significantly higher in people without diabetes. Insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables in the daily diet is directly related to diabetes, its complications in the form of DR progression. The obtained data provide a basis for the recommendations for patients with DR and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the form of enriching the diet with fruits and vegetables and consider this piece of advice as prevention of the disease progression. The study of these features in patients with different degrees of DR can provide a basis for the development of additional behavioral and nutritional recommendations, which accompany the treatment regimens in order to avoid deterioration of the retina. For the integral assessment of LS indicators in comparison groups, it is efficient to carry out the analysis of answers to the questionnaire through determination of indices. The most successful one is the index of recommendation rationa­lity through “recommended — not recommended” ratio.

Keywords


metabolic disorders; diabetes mellitus; diet; genetic studies; risk factors

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