Citicoline in ophthalmologic practice: neuroprotection in ischemic optic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy and amblyopia
Keywords:citicoline, neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, ischemic optic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, amblyopia
Decrease and loss of vision are extremely important problems, quite common conditions that lead to disability. The most common causes are ischemic optic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and amblyopia. The pathogenesis of these diseases is characterized by neurodegeneration, loss of structure and function of neurons. Citicoline may be considered for neuroprotection as the drug of choice in these clinical situations. Citicoline has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, it reduces lipid peroxidation and the formation of free radicals, has anti-apoptotic and membrane-protective effects. The drug has a neuromodulatory effect and also contributes to the preservation of sphingomyelin, which ensures signal transmission in nerve cells. In ischemic optic neuropathy, oral citicoline can reduce nerve fiber loss and improve retinal ganglion cell function and visual tract function. In diabetic retinopathy, citicoline prevents synapse loss and improves macular and retinal ganglion cell function. In amblyopia, citicoline stimulates the function of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, including an increase in the activity of endogenous dopamine and, at the same time, an improvement in the vascular aspects of neurological function. Axobrex is a convenient oral form of citicoline. With oral administration, the bioavailability of citicoline exceeds 90 %, Axobrex is non-toxic and very well-tolerated. The dosage regimen of Axobrex is simple, which contributes to satisfactory patient adherence to treatment. The use of Axobrex in patients with ischemic optic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and amblyopia has an optimal balance of benefits and safety and is advisable for neuroprotection.
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