Again about carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: modern aspects of the use of ICA in ophthalmology

Authors

  • P.A. Bezdetko Kharkiv National Medical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine, Ukraine

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2309-8147.9.2.2021.241511

Keywords:

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, glaucoma, eye hemodynamics, antioxidant activity, macular edema, cornea of the eye

Abstract

For more than 70 years, the inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (ICA) have been used in the treatment of glaucoma. Since 1995, topical forms of ICA have appeared among antiglaucoma drugs — dorzolamide, and since 1999 — brinzolamide. The hypotensive efficacy and safety of topical ICA gave rise to the widespread use of these drugs in the treatment of various forms of glaucoma. The peculiarities of the mechanism of action made it possible to create on their basis effective fixed combinations, which allow reducing the intraocular pressure by up to 40 % in patients with glaucoma. The attractiveness of the drug has expanded due to the effect of ICA on various tissues of the organ of vision. Thus, ICAs effectively improve the hemodynamics of the eye and optic nerve. The antioxidant activity of the drug makes it possible to
expand the indications for its use in patients with vascular patho-
logy of the retina and optic nerve. The biomechanical characte-
ristics of the drug allowed its effective and safe use in the complex treatment of macular edema of various etiologies. The adjuvant use of topical ICAs expands the possibilities of anti-VEGF therapy in the treatment of macular edema of various etiologies. Features of the action of ICA on the endothelial pump function of the cornea made it possible to formulate the rules for the use of topical ICA in patients with an insufficient function of the corneal endothelium.

References

Alkin Z., Ozkaya A., Karatash G., Yazichi A.T., Demirok A. Brinzolamide therapy for cystic macular edema secondary to retinitis pigmentosa. Retina-Vitreus. 2013.

Becker B. Carbonic anhydrase and the formation of aqueous humor. The Friedenwald memorial lecture. Am. J. Opthtalmol. 1959. 47. 342-361.

Becker B. The mechanism of the fall in intraocular pressure induced by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, diamox. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 1955. 39 (2 Pt 2). 177-184. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9394(55)90022-27.

Bonanno J.A., Giasson C. Intracellular pH regulation in fresh and cultured bovine corneal endothelium. I. Na/H exchange in the absence and presence of HCO3–. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1992. 33. 3058. 3067. [Abstract] [Google Scholar]

Bonanno J.A., Srinivas S.P., Brown M. Effect of acetazolamide on intracellular pH and bicarbonate transport on the corneal endothelium of cattle. Exp. Eye Res. 1995. 60. 425-434. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Born V.N., Nelson L.R., Hodge D.O. Changes in the central endothelial cells of the cornea over a ten-year period. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1997. 38. 779-82. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Butt Z., McKillop G., O’Brien C. Measurement of ocular blood flow velocity using colour Doppler imaging in low tension glaucoma. Eye. 1995. 9. 29-33. DOI: 10.1038/ eye.1995.4

Candia O. New system for measuring the fluxes of labeled CO2 and HCO3 through the epithelium: corneal epithelium as a model tissue. Exp. Eye Res. 1996. 63. 137-149. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Carta F., Supuran C.T., Scozzafava A. Novel therapies for glaucoma: a patent review 2007–2011. Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 2012. 22(1). 79-88. DOI: 10.1517/13543776.2012.6490066.

Chandra S., Muir E.R., Deo K., Kiel J.W., Duong T.Q. Effects of dorzolamide on retinal and choroidal blood flow in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2016. 57. 826-831. DOI: 10.1167/ iovs.15-18291.

Chegwidden W.R., Carter N.D., Edwards Y.H. The Carbonic Anhydrases: New Horizons. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag, 2000.

Chung X., Hwang Zhu, Kim J.G., Yun Y. Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and monitoring of cystic macular edema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Retina. 2006. 26 (8). 922-7. Epub 13.10.2006. DOI: 10.1097/01.iae.0000250008.83779.23. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Conroy C.W., Buck R.H., Maren T.H. Microchemical determination of carbonic anhydrase in the corneal epithelium. Exp. Eye Res. 1992. 55. 637-640. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Cox S.N., Hay E., Bird A.C. Treatment of chronic macular edema with acetazolamide. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1988. 106. 190-1195.

Dallinger S., Bobr B., Findl O. Effects of acetazolamide on choroidal blood flow. Stroke. 1998. 29. 997-1001. DOI: 10.1161/01.STR.29.5.997.

Dong Y.R., Huang S.W., Cui J.Z., Yoshitomi T. Effects of brinzolamide on rabbit ocular blood flow in vivo and ex vivo. Int. J. Ophthalmol. 2018. 11(5). 719-725. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.05.0353.

Farber M.D., Lam S., Tessler H.H., Jennings T.J., Cross A., Rusin M.M. Reduction of macular oedema by acetazolamide in patients with chronic iridocyclitis: a randomised prospective crossover study. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1994. 78.

Fazel F., Nikpour H., Pourazizi M. Combination of Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Topical Dorzolamide versus Intravitreal Bevacizumab Alone for Diabetic Macular Edema: A Randomized Contralateral Clinical Trial. Biomed. Res. Int. 2020 Jan 16. 2020. 6794391. doi: 10.1155/2020/6794391.

Fishbarg J., Lim J. The role of cations, anions and carbonic anhydrase in fluid transport through the endothelium of the rabbit cornea. J. Physiol. 1974. 241. 647-675. [PMC Free Article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Genead M.A., Fishman G.A. The effectiveness of long-term local therapy with dorzolamide in cystic macular lesions in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and Usher’s syndrome. Arch. Ophthalmol. 2010. 128 (9). 1146-50. Epub 2010/09/15. DOI: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.172; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3696579. [PMC Free Article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Grant W.M., Trotter R.R. Arch. Ophthal. (Chicago) 1954. 51. 735.

Hageman G.S., Zhu X.L., Waheed A.S., Ly W.S. Localization of carbonic anhydrase IV in a specific capillary bed of the human eye. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1991. 88(7). 2716-2720. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Harris A., Tippke S., Sievers C. Acetazolamide and CO2: acute effects on cerebral and retrobulbar hemodynamics. J. Glaucoma. 1996. 5(1). 39-45. DOI: 10.1097/00061198-199602000-00007.

Henderer J.D., Wilson R.P., Moster M.R. Timolol/dorzolamide combination therapy as initial treatment for intraocular pressure over 30 mm Hg. J. Glaucoma. 2005. 14(4). 267-270. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2005.10.03331.

Higginbotham E.J., Feldman R., Stiles M., Dubiner H. Fixed Combination Investigative Group. Latanoprost and timolol combination therapy vs monotherapy: one-year randomized trial. Arch. Ophthalmol. 2002. 120. 915.

Holthofer H., Segal G.J., Tarkkanen A., Tervo T. Immunocytochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase, NaK-ATPase and bicarbonate chloride exchanger in the anterior segment of the human eye. Acta Ophthalmologica. 1991. 69. 149-154. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Hsu J., Patel S.N., Wolfe J.D. et al. Effect of Adjuvant Topical Dorzolamide-Timolol vs Placebo in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020 May. 138(5). 560-567. Published online 2020 Apr 2. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.0724.

Iester M., Altieri M., Michelson G. Retinal peripapillary blood flow before and after topical brinzolamide. Ophthalmologica. 2003. 218(6). 390-396. DOI: 10.1159/000080942.

Ikeda Y., Yoshida N., Notomi S., Murakami Y., Hisatomi T., Enaida H. et al. Therapeutic effect of long-term treatment with topical dorzolamide for cystic macular edema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 2013

Kaminski S., Hommer A., Koyunku D., Biovski R., Barisani T., Baumgartner I. Effect of dorzolamide on corneal thickness, endothelial cell count and corneal sensitivity. Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 1998. 76. 78-79. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Konoval A., Morrison J., Brown S. et al. Irreversible corneal decompensation in patients treated with tropical dorzolamide. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 1999. 127. 403-406. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Kurysheva N.I., Azizova O.A. A comparative study of the antioxidant activity of combination drugs for the local treatment of glaucoma. Russian ophthalmological journal. 2013. 6(2). 48-5. (In Russ.)

Kurysheva N.I., Azizova O.A., Piryazev A.P. Antiradical and antioxidant activity of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for the local treatment of glaucoma. Russian ophthalmological journal. 2011. 4(3). 55-61. (In Russ.)

Kurysheva N.I., Azizova O.A., Piryazev A.P. Antioxidant activity of a fixed combination of dorzolamide with timolol in the aspect of neuroprotection in glaucoma. Оphthalmology in Russia. 2012. 9(4). 47-51. DOI: 10.18008/1816-5095-2012-4-47-51. (In Russ.)

Lass J.H., Khosrof S.A., Lawrence J.K. et al. A randomized one-year double mask study comparing the effects of dorzolamide, timolol, and betaxolol on the cornea. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1998. 116. 1003-10. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Lima-Gomez V., Bermudez-Zapata D.A., Razo Blanco-Hernandez D.M. Efficacy of dorzolamide in reducing retinal thickness after photocoagulation in diabetic macular oedema. Cirugía y Cirujanos (English Edition). 2015. Vol. 83. Issue 1. 3-8.

Maren T.H., Jankowska L., Sanyal G., Edelhauser H.F. The transcorneal permeability of sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and their effect on aqueous humor secretion. Exp. Eye Res. 1983. 36(4). 457-479. DOI: 10.1016/0014-4835(83)90041-68.

Shahsuvaryan M.L. Rediscovering Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors in Ophthalmology. EC Ophthalmology. 2016. 4. 4. 565-568.

Martinez A., Sanchez M. A comparison of the effects of 0.005% latanoprost and fixed combination dorzolamide/timolol on retrobulbar haemodynamics in previously untreated glaucoma patients. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 2006. 22(1). 67-73. DOI: 10.1185/030079906X80215.

Maus T.L., Larsson L.I., McLaren J.W., Brubaker R.F. Comparison of dorzolamide and acetazolamide as suppressors of aqueous humor flow in humans. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1997. 115(1). 45-49. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.1997.011001500470010.

Obeid A., Hsu J., Ehmann D. et al. Topical dorzolamide-timolol with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor for retinal vein occlusion: a pilot study. Retinal Cases & Brief Reports. 2018. [Google Scholar]

Ontiveros-Orozco I., Garcia-Franco R., Levin-Bere-viches A., Lopez-Star E.M., Rojas-Juarez S., Celis-Suazo B. et al. Brinzolamida tópica para el tratamiento de la coroidorretinopatía serosa central idiopática. Rev. Mex. Ophthalmol. 80. 2006. 132-137.

Ophir A. Early and Long-Term Responses to Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy in Diabetic Macular Edema: An Analysis of Protocol I Evidence, American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2017. Vol. 177. S. 230-231. [Google Scholar]

Pedersen D.B., Koch Jensen P., la Cour M., Kiilgaard J.F., Eysteinsson T., Bang K., et al. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase increases the oxygen tension in the retina and dilates the retinal vessels. Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 2005. 243 (2). 163-8. Epub 2005.03.03. DOI: 10.1007/s00417-003-0817-3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Perkins E.S. Trans. Ophthal. Soc. U.K. 1955. 75. (In the press).

Pfeiffer N. Dorzolamide: Development and Clinical Application of a Topical Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor. Surv. Ophthalmol. 1997. 42(2). 137-151. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Qinzhu Huang, Ru Chen, Xianping Lin, Zhenyang Xiang. Efficacy of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in management of cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa: A meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017. Oct 12. 12(10). e0186180. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186180. Collection 2017.

Reber F., Gersch U., Funk R.W. Blockers of carbonic anhydrase can cause increase of retinal capillary diameter, decrease of extracellular and increase of intracellular pH in rat retinal organ culture. Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 2003. 241(2). 140-148. DOI: 10.1007/s00417-002-0560-1.

Reynolds A.C. Topical Glaucoma Treatment and the Cornea Alternative strategies may benefit patients with a compromised ocular surface. Glaucoma today. Nov/Dec 2014.

Schmitz K., Banditt P., Motschmann M. Population pharmacokinetics of 2 % topical dorzolamide in the aqueous humor of humans. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1999. 40. 1621-1624.

Shedden А., Adamsons I., Getson A. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of preservative-free and preservative-containing formulations of the dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (COSOPTTM) in patients with elevated intraocular pressure in a randomized clinical trial. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 2010. 248. 1757-1764. DOI: 10.1007/s00417-010-1397-751.

Shi X.P., Candia O.A., Zamudio A., Wistrand P. Physiological evidence for membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase in corneal epithelium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1994. 25 (Suppl.). Arvo abstract No. 3448, 1401. [Google Scholar]

Siesky B., Harris A., Brizendine E., Marquez S., Loh J., McKee J. et al. Literature review and meta-analysis of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and ocular blood flow. Surv. Ophthalmol. 2009. 54 (1). 33-46. Epub 2009.01.28. DOI: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.06.002. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Siesky B., Harris A., Edward Brizendine E. Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Topical Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors and Ocular Blood Flow. Survey of Ophthalmology. 2009. 54(1). 33-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.06.00274.

Siesky B., Harris A., Sines D. A comparative analysis of the effects of the fixed combination of timolol and dorzolamide versus latanoprost plus timolol on ocular hemodynamics and visual function in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther. 2006. 22. 353-361. DOI: 10.1089/JOP.2006.22.35366-69.

Silver L.H. Clinical efficacy and safety of brinzolamide (Azopt), a new topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide Primary Therapy Study Group. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 1998. 126(3). 400-408. DOI: 10.1016/s0002-9394(98)00095-69.

Sridhar J., Hsu J. Shahlaee A. et al. Topical dorzolamide-timolol with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor for age-related neovascular macular degeneration, JAMA Ophthalmology. 2016. Vol. 134. № 4. P. 437-443. [Google Scholar]

Sugrue M.F., Harris A., Adamsons I. Dorzolamide hydrochloride: a topically active, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for the treatment of glaucoma. Drugs Today. 1997. 33. 283-298.

Sugrue M.F., Johns B. Dorzolamide concentrations in pigmented rabbit eye after repeated administration of Trusopt. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1999. 40 (Suppl.). S171. [Google Scholar]

Supuran C.T. Carbonic anhydrases: novel therapeutic applications for inhibitors and activators. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 2008. 7(2). 168-181. DOI: 10.1038/ nrd2467.

Suzuki А.T., Hayakawa K., Onouchi Y., Ogata H., Nakagawa M., Kawai К. Topical dorzolamide for early macular edema after vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane removal. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2013. Vol. 7. 549-553. [Google Scholar]

Tanimura H., Minamoto A., Narai A., Hirayama T., Suzuki M., Mishima H. K. Corneal edema in patients with glaucoma after adding 1% brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension. Jpn J. Ophthalmol. 2005. 49. 332-333. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Thygesen J. Glaucoma therapy: preservative-free for all? Clinical Ophthalmology. 2018. 12. 707-717. DOI: 10.2147/OPTH.S150816.

Virtich M.G., Findl O., Kiss B., Petternel V., Heinzl H., Drexler V. Short-term effect of dorzolamide hydrochloride on central corneal thickness in people with teardrop-shaped cornea. Arch. Ophthalmol. 2003. 121. 621-625. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Weiss M., Sim D.A., Herold T. et al. Compliance and adherence of patients with diabetic macular edema to intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy in daily practice. Retina. 2017. Vol. 38. № 12. P. 2293-2300. [Google Scholar]

Wilkerson M., Tsirlin M., Lippa E.A. et al. A four-week study on the safety and efficacy of dorzolamide, a novel active topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1993. 111. 1343-1350. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Wilkerson M., Tsirlin M., Lippa E.A. et al. A four-week study on the safety and efficacy of dorzolamide, a novel active topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1993. 111. 1343-1350. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Wilson T.M., Strang R., MacKenzie E.T. The response of the choroidal and cerebral circulations to changing arterial PCO2 and acetazolamide in the baboon. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1977. 16. 576-580.

Wistrand P.J., Schönholm M., Lonnerholm G. Carbonic anhydrase isozymes CA I and CA II in the human eye. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1986. 27. 419-428. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Wolfensberger T.J., Dmitriev A.V., Govardovsky V.I. Inhibition of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase lowers subretinal pH and volume. Doc. Ophthalmol. 1999. 97 (3–4). 261-71. Epub 2000/07/15. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Zanon-Moreno V., García-Medina J.J., Gallego-Pinaso R. Changing the antioxidant status by topical application of dorzolamide in primary open-angle glaucoma Eur. J. Ophthalmol. July-August 2009. 19(4). 565-71. DOI: 10.1177/112067210901900408.

Published

2021-10-19

Issue

Section

Literature Review, Discussions